Literacy increased, as did development in the arts, architecture and jurisprudence, as well as liturgical and scriptural studies.
Peasant society is much less documented than the nobility. Ames, Christine Caldwell February Appeals from the crusader states to the papacy led to further crusades,  such as the Third Crusade , called to try to regain Jerusalem, which had been captured by Saladin d. Suitor, of course, can only be used for men, as can 'swain'. In the 12th and 13th centuries, Europe experienced economic growth and innovations in methods of production. The notice was put up to ensure that there were no grounds for prohibiting the marriage. Commercial secondary schools spread, and some Italian towns had more than one such enterprise.